Phased array ultrasonics (PA) is an advanced method of ultrasonic testing that has applications in industrial nondestructive testing. Common applications are to non-destructively find flaws in manufactured materials such as welds. Single-element (non-phased array) probes, emit a beam in a fixed direction. To test a large volume of material, a conventional probe must be physically moved to sweep the beam through the area of testing. Alternately the beam from a phased array probe can be focused and swept electronically without moving the probe. The beam is controllable because a phased array probe is made up of multiple small elements,each of which can be pulsed individually at a computer-calculated timing. The term phased refers to the timing, and the term array refers to the multiple elements. Phased array ultrasonic testing is based on principles of wave physics.